Minimum nutrient input requirement Minimum nutrient input requirement

In our approach to assess long-term nutrient input requirements it is postulated that the annual application rates of macro-nutrients (N, P, K) should at least be equal to total nutrient uptake in the aboveground crop biomass (grain and stover) at  a given target yield, YT. In this way, the minimum input requirements (A, kgnutrient ha-1) are equivalent to the uptake requirements (U, kgnutrient ha-1) of the crop at the target yield.

The nutrient uptake for a given YT is calculated using selected principles of the QUEFTS model (Janssen et al., 1990). These include (1) a coefficient to express physiological efficiency of each nutrient (kg grain per kg uptake of the nutrient in total crop biomass) (Table 1 – we used medium values); (2) balanced nutrition implying that overall efficiency is best served if the different nutrients are taken up in optimum stoichiometric ratios to one another; (3) both physiological efficiency and nutrient uptake ratios (N/P/K) are constant up to a given relative target yield (YT/Yw), here 0.62; and (4) beyond this point the N-use efficiency decreases non-linearly as the target yield approaches the yield ceiling Yw as a result of extra nutrient uptake. This decline is defined by linear decreases of both derivatives dY/dU and dU/dA from their initial values (valid up to YT/Yw=0.62) to zero at the yield ceiling (YT=Yw). In contrast to N, the physiological efficiency of which decreases for YT/Yw exceeding 0.62, no accumulation of P or K in crop biomass is presumed beyond the 62% point, and therefore the input requirements of P and K are constant per kg grain produced.

The above implies a course of agronomic N use efficiency (N-AE, kg grain per kg nutrient applied) versus relative yield that starts at 52 kg kg-1 which is maintained for yields up to 62% of Yw, and then declines to reach ca. 46 kg kg-1 for yields representing 80% of Yw. Yields are expressed at 15.5% moisture. (This corresponds to N-AE = 50 kg kg-1 at 12% moisture, which implies that 20 kg of N input is needed per ton of maize grain produced.)

This approach to minimum nutrient input requirement assumes that other management factors are optimal so as to avoid yield limitations other than due to water (in rainfed conditions), while yield reducing factors (weeds, pests and diseases) are well-controlled.

In a steady-state equilibrium (soil nutrient pools are constant) the annual nutrient losses are – by definition - equal to the difference between nutrient input and offtake, i.e. to the nutrient surplus. This means that in crops where  only the grains are harvested and all crop residues are retained on the field, the postulated condition (input equals uptake in aboveground biomass) implies that the annual nutrient loss is equal to the amount of the nutrient contained in crop residues. This approach is suitable for long-term calculations where soil nutrient pools adapt to a given input regime.

One may argue that these minimum N input requirements are a very optimistic (i.e., ‘low') estimate of actual N input requirements. This is certainly true for a system where all residues are harvested, as our approach then implies that all added fertiliser N is either taken up by the crop or substitutes N taken up from the soil pool, at any ratio between these two. That implies zero N losses via volatilisation (NH3), denitrification (N2 and N2O), or leaching (nitrate). In contrast, for a system where all residues are returned to the soil, the proposed minimum N input requirement implies that annual N losses are equivalent to the amount of N in the stover, and this may be achievable for N provided highly efficient management. For P and K the crop-soil system is less ‘leaky' than for N, and sustaining target yields at the stated minimum input requirements will be easier, except on P-fixing soils. In summary, our minimum N,P,K requirements can be seen as a well-defined target, presuming highly efficient management, no soil mining of nutrients and low losses to the environment. The given values indicate the minimum amounts of macro-nutrients that are likely needed on the longer term to achieve a defined target yield. When using the minimum input requirements, it should be born in mind that currently, actual agronomic nutrient efficiencies might be much lower due to sub-optimal management, and therefore nutrient losses to the environmental also higher than implicated here.

For a more comprehensive description of quantifying minimum nutrient input requirements and balanced nutrition, see Ten Berge et al., 2019.

*These parameters are consistent with those of For other examples of analyses of yield-uptake relationships or the use of balanced nutrition, see e.g. Witt et al. (1999) for rice and Setiyono et al. (2011) for maize.

Table 1: Internal or physiological nutrient use efficiency, IE (kg grain per kg crop nutrient uptake) of cereals for macronutrients N, P, K for cereals, assessed from different literature sources. Superscripts for maximum accumulation (acc), maximum dilution (dil), or medium dilution (med).  Values were converted to standard moisture content.




(kg grain yield/kg nutrient)


(kg grain yield/kg nutrient)


(kg grain yield/kg nutrient)










Ludemann, Cameron et al. (2022),

















e.g. Ansari et al., 2011; Fofana et al., 2008; Muehlig-Versen et al., 2003; Samaké, 2003; Sangare et al., 2002; Van Duivenbooden, 1992

















 e.g. Baishya et al., 2015; Mosaad et al., 2018; Ockerby et al., 1999; Suriyakup et al., 2007; Van Duivenbooden, 1992; Zhang et al., 2010

















 e.g. Dixit et al., 2005; Duhan, 2013; Gordon et al., 1998; Han et al., 2011; Sahrawat et al., 1995; Van Duivenbooden, 1992

















e.g. Abate et al., 2011; Baishya et al., 2015; Chuan et al., 2013; Jan et al., 2014; Van Duivenbooden, 1992; Yadav et al., 2005; Zhan et al., 2016












Actual nutrient input

Actual nutrient input is defined as the sum of mineral fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition (in case of nitrogen).

Data on mineral fertilizer input per country and crop were obtained from Ludemann et al. (2022). In case the country was not present in that database, mean mineral fertilizer input across all cropland for that country from the FAOSTAT cropland nutrient budget was used as a proxy for fertilizer input per crop. For both manure and deposition data we also used data from the FAOSTAT cropland nutrient budget; this database provides only nutrient inputs as an average for all crops – it is not crop specific.

Manure data used from the FAOSTAT cropland nutrient budget has a few known limitations (Ludemann et al., In Press). This includes the fact that international imports/exports of livestock manure are not accounted for and manure was apportioned to cropland and non-cropland using the same coefficients as used to apportion mineral fertilizer to cropland and non-cropland (Ludemann et al., In Press). While this may give some indication of proportion of manure applied to cropland, it is not based on surveys of flows of manure. These limitations could result in nutrient inputs through manure being grossly overestimated for countries such as Belgium, Ireland, Montenegro and the Netherlands



Abate, T. et al., 2011. A systems and partnership approach to agricultural research for development Lessons from Ethiopia. Outlook on Agriculture, 40(3): 213-220.

Ansari, M.A., Rana, K.S., Rana, D.S. and Kumar, P., 2011. Effect of nutrient management and antitranspirant on rainfed sole and intercropped pearlmillet (Pennisetum glaucum) and pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 56(3): 209-216.

Baishya, A. et al., 2015. Effect of continuous cropping and integrated nutrient management practices on soil properties and yield of rice (Oryza sativa)-rice cropping system in acid soil. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 60(4): 493-501.

Chuan, L.M. et al., 2013. Estimating nutrient uptake requirements for wheat in China. Field Crops Research, 146: 96-104.

Dixit, A.K., Singh, O.P., Kachroo, D. and Bali, A.S., 2005. Response of promising rainy-season sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 50(3): 206-209.

Duhan, B.S., 2013. Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield and nutrients uptake by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Forage Res, 39(3): 156-158.

FAO (2022). Cropland nutrient budget – Global, regional and country trends, 1961–2020. FAOSTAT, Rome.

Fofana, B., Wopereis, M.C.S., Bationo, A., Breman, H. and Mando, A., 2008. Millet nutrient use efficiency as affected by natural soil fertility, mineral fertilizer use and rainfall in the West African Sahel. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 81(1): 25-36.

Gordon, W.B., Whitney, D.A. and Fjell, D.L., 1998. Starter fertilizer effects on grain sorghum hybrids grown on a soil high in residual phosphorus in a notillage environment. Journal of plant nutrition, 21(11): 2403-2415.

Han, L.P., Steinberger, Y., Zhao, Y.L. and Xie, G.H., 2011. Accumulation and partitioning of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different varieties of sweet sorghum. Field Crops Research, 120(2): 230-240.

Jan, B., Sharif, M. and Khan, F., 2014. Effect of Different Fungicides Application on Wheat Yield and Soil Native Status of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13(12): 735-741.

Janssen, B.H., Guiking, F.C.T., van der Eijk, D., Smaling, E.M.A., Wolf, J., van Reuler, H., 1990. A system for quantitative evaluation of the fertility of tropical soils (QUEFTS). Geoderma 46, 299–318.

Janssen, B.H., 1998. Efficient use of nutrients: an art of balancing. Field Crops Res.56, 197–201.

Janssen, B.H., 2011. Simple models and concepts as tools for the study of sustained soil productivity in long-term experiments. II. Crop nutrient equivalents, balanced supplies of available nutrients, and NPK triangles. Plant Soil 339, 17–33.

Ludemann, Cameron et al., 2022. Estimating maize harvest index and nitrogen concentrations in grain and residue using globally available data, Dryad, Dataset,

Ludemann, C. I., Gruere, A., Heffer, P., & Dobermann, A. (2022). Global data on fertilizer use by crop and by country. Scientific data, 9(1), 1-8.

Ludemann, C. I., Wanner, N., Chivenge, P., Dobermann, A., Einarsson, R., Grassini, P., Gruere, A., Jackson, K., Lassaletta, L., Maggi, F., Obli-Laryea, G., van Ittersum, M. K., Vishwakarma, S., Zhang, X., and Tubiello, F. (In Press). A global reference database in FAOSTAT of cropland nutrient budgets and nutrient use efficiency: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Earth Systems Science Data.

Mosaad, I.S., Khafagy, E.-H.E. and Seada, A.K., 2018. Interaction effect between mineral zinc-nitrogen fertilization mixture and organic fertilization as compost on yield, nutrients uptake of rice and some soil properties. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 19(5): 302-309.

Muehlig-Versen, B., Buerkert, A., Bationo, A. and Roemheld, V., 2003. Phosphorus placement on acid arenosols of the west African Sahel. Experimental Agriculture, 39(3): 307-325.

Ockerby, S.E., Adkins, S.W. and Garside, A.L., 1999. The uptake and use of nitrogen by paddy rice in fallow, cereal, and legume cropping systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(6): 945-952.

Sahrawat, K.L. et al., 1995. Response of Sorghum to Fertilizer Phosphorus and Its Residual Value in a Vertisol. Fert Res, 41(1): 41-47.

Samaké, O., 2003. Integrated crop management strategies in Sahelian land use systems to improve agricultural productivity and sustainability: A case study in Mali.

Sangare, M., Fernandez-Rivera, S., Hiernaux, P., Bationo, A. and Pandey, V., 2002. Influence of dry season supplementation for cattle on soil fertility and millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) yield in a mixed crop/livestock production system of the Sahel. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 62(3): 209-217.

Setiyono, T.D., Walters, D.T., Cassman, K.G., Witt, C., Dobermann, A, 2010. Estimating maize nutrient uptake requirements. Field Crops Research 118, 158–168.

Suriyakup, P. et al., 2007. Introducing mungbean as a preceding crop to enhance nitrogen uptake and yield of rainfed rice in the north-east of Thailand. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 58(11): 1059-1067.

Ten Berge, H.F.M., Hijbeek, R., van Loon, M.P., Rurinda, J., Tesfaye, K., Zingore, S., Craufurd, P., van Heerwaarden, J., Brentrup, F., Schröder, J.J., Boogaard, H.L., de Groot, H.L.E., van Ittersum, M.K., 2019. Maize crop nutrient input requirements for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Food Security, Vol. 23 (2019), 9-21.

Van Duivenbooden, N., 1992. Sustainability in terms of nutrient elements with special reference to West-Africa, CABO-DLO.

Velthof G., D. Oudendag, H. Witzke, W. Asman, Z. Klimont, O. Oenema. 2009. Integrated assessment of nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27 using MITERRA-EUROPE. J. Environ. Qual., 38: 402-417.

Velthof G., J. Lesschen, J. Webb, S. Pietrzak, Z. Miatkowski, M. Pinto, J. Kros, O. Oenema. 2014. The impact of the Nitrates Directive on nitrogen emissions from agriculture in the EU-27 during 2000–2008. Sci. Total Environ., 468: 1225-1233.

J. Webb, P. Sørensen, G. Velthof, B. Amon, M. Pinto, L. Rodhe, E. Salomon, N. Hutchings, P. Burczyk, J. Reid. 2013. An assessment of the variation of manure nitrogen efficiency throughout Europe and an appraisal of means to increase manure-N efficiency. D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Adv. Agron., Academic Press (2013), pp. 371-442.

Witt, C., Dobermann, A., Abdulrachman, S., Gines, H.C., Wang, Guanghuo, Nagarajan, R., Satawatananont, S., Tran, Thuc Son, Pham, Sy Tan, Le, Van Tiem, Simbahan, G.C., Olk, D.C., 1999. Internal nutrient efficiencies of irrigated lowland rice in tropical and subtropical Asia. Field Crops Research 63, 113–138.

Yadav, M.P., Aslam, M. and Kushwaha, S.P., 2005. Effect of integrated nutrient management on rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system in Central Plains Zone of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 50(2): 89-93.

Zhan, A. et al., 2016. Estimating on-farm wheat yield response to potassium and potassium uptake requirement in China. Field Crops Research, 191: 13-19.

Zhang, H.M. et al., 2010. Rice yield, potassium uptake and apparent balance under long-term fertilization in rice-based cropping systems in southern China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 88(3): 341-349.